Some Details To Be Noted In Machining Shaft Process
|Shafts are a common type of part that is a rotating body with a length that is generally larger than the diameter. It is widely used in various mechanical equipment to support transmission components, transmit torque and withstand loads. The processing of shaft parts must follow certain rules. This article will come to specific processing steps and some problems that need attention.|
Basic machining route for shaft
The main machining surface of the shaft parts is the outer surface and the common special surface, so the most suitable machining method should be selected for various accuracy grades and surface roughness requirements. The basic machining route can be summarized into four.
- 1.from the rough car to the semi-finished car, and then to the finishing car machining route, this is also the most important process route for the general external material shaft parts needle outer ring machining.
- 2.from roughing to semi-finishing, to rough grinding, and finally using fine grinding machining route, for ferrous materials and precision requirements, surface roughness requirements are small and need hardened parts, this machining route It is the best choice because grinding is the most ideal follow-up process.
- 3.from rough car to semi-finished car, then to fine car, diamond car, this machining route is specially used to process non-ferrous metal materials, because the hardness of non-ferrous metals is small, it is easy to block the gap between sand particles, grinding is usually not It is easy to obtain the required surface roughness, and the finishing and diamond car processes must be used; the last machining route is from roughing to semi-finishing, to coarse grinding and fine grinding.
- 4.Performing finishing, this kind of route is a machining route that is often used for hardened ferrous materials and requires high precision and low surface roughness.
Pre-machining of shaft
Before the turning of the outer part of the shaft part, some preparatory process is required. This is the pre-machining of the shaft part. The most important preparation process is straightening. Because the workpiece blank is often bent during deformation during manufacturing, transportation, and storage. In order to ensure reliable clamping and uniform distribution of machining allowance, straightening is performed by various presses or straightening machines in the cold state.
Positioning standard for machining of shaft
- 1. Use the center hole of the workpiece as the positioning reference for machining. In the machining of shaft parts, the coaxiality of each outer circular surface, tapered hole and thread surface, and the perpendicularity of the end surface to the rotation axis are important manifestations of positional accuracy. These surfaces are generally designed with the centerline of the shaft as the reference and are positioned with the center hole to conform to the principle of reference coincidence. The center hole is not only the positioning reference for turning machining, but also the positioning reference and inspection standard for other machining processes, which conforms to the principle of unified standards. When positioning with two center holes, it is possible to process a plurality of outer circles and end faces in a single clamping.
- 2. The outer circle and the center hole serve as the positioning reference for the machining. This method effectively overcomes the shortcomings of poor positioning rigidity of the center hole, especially when machining a heavier workpiece, the positioning of the center hole may cause the clamping to be unstable, and the cutting amount may not be too large. You don’t have to worry about this problem by using the outer circle and the center hole as the positioning reference. In roughing, the method of using the outer surface of the shaft and a center hole as the positioning reference can withstand large cutting moments during machining, which is the most common positioning method for shaft parts.
- 3. Use two outer circular surfaces as the positioning reference for machining. When machining the inner bore of the hollow shaft, the center hole cannot be used as the positioning reference, so the two outer circular surfaces of the shaft should be used as the positioning reference. When machining the machine tool spindle, the two support journals are often used as the positioning reference, which can effectively ensure the concentricity of the taper hole relative to the support journal, and eliminate the error caused by the misalignment of the reference.
- 4. Use a cone plug with a central hole as the positioning reference for machining. This method is most commonly used in the machining of the outer surface of hollow shafts.
The clamping of the shaft
The machining of the cone plug and the taper mandrel must have high machining precision. The center hole is not only the positioning reference made by itself, but also the benchmark for the outer circle finishing of the hollow shaft. It must ensure the taper on the cone or cone sleeve. It has a high degree of concentricity with the center hole.
Therefore, when selecting the clamping method, it should be noted that the number of installations of the cone plug should be minimized, thereby reducing the repeated installation error of the parts. In actual production, after the cone plug is installed, it is generally not removed or replaced in the middle of machining before machining.
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