Metal forming refers to the process of using active power to deform metal materials to obtain parts with desired shapes within the limits of tooling and molds. Metal forming parts mainly include forgings, stamping parts, sheet metal production parts, etc., which consume 70% of the total amount of all metal materials such as sheet metal, pipe, bar, wire and profile. The entire metal forming industry employs more than 10 million people, creates an annual industrial added value of 2 trillion yuan, purchases 80 billion yuan of forming technology and equipment, and consumes 100 billion yuan of tools and molds. In the three major metal forming industries of forging, stamping and sheet metal production, the four major elements of production process, technical equipment, tooling and raw materials are indispensable. Among them, the technical equipment based on metal forming machine tools provides forming energy, which plays a key role in ensuring product quality, improving production efficiency, reducing operators, controlling production costs, environmental protection and energy saving, and sustainability.
In this age, networking, information and intelligence have not only changed our work and lifestyle, but also subverted the manufacturing and metal forming industries. At present, the automation, informatization and intelligent construction of metal forming enterprises are urgent tasks. The use of intelligent machine tools is a prerequisite for the use of automated production, the construction of information factories, and the realization of intelligent manufacturing. On the contrary, without intelligent machine tools, It is difficult or impossible to realize the automation, informatization and intelligence of the enterprise. Therefore, the use of intelligent machine tools or intelligent transformation of machine tools by metal forming enterprises is a compulsory course for the intelligent construction of enterprises. In the intelligent metal forming machine tool, the intelligence of the main drive is very important; and the core of solving the intelligent main drive of the metal forming machine tool is to adopt the servo main drive.
Based on the application industry of metal forming machine tools, we will analyze and look forward to the main drive mode servoing of forming machine tools in the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries, so that each metal forming machine tool company can plan its own development direction and help each metal forming machine tool. Component manufacturers choose to purchase machine tools to improve product quality, reduce production costs, and improve comprehensive competitiveness.
The development of metal forming machine tools to today, whether it is a forging machine tool, or a stamping and sheet metal making machine tool; whether it is a mechanical machine tool or a hydraulic machine tool, it is imperative to develop in the direction of servo main drive. The advantages of using servo main drives for metal forming machine tools have been fully proven by the production practices of various industries. The metal forming machine tools using servo main drives not only have good manufacturability, but also save energy, and are easy to achieve automation integration, information networking and intelligent control. A must for metal forming companies in the future.
Among the four forming machine tools produced by forging, forging hammers have developed from steam-driven and air-driven to the most commonly used electro-hydraulic drive. The concept that the hammer uses fluid medium transmission is a revolutionary change in the driving method of forging hammers. Screw presses have developed from flywheel friction drive to the most commonly used frequency conversion (or permanent magnet) motor direct drive. At present, some companies have developed mechanical servo electric direct drive methods with higher efficiency and better performance. For mechanical presses, commonly known as die forging presses, the drive motor is also upgraded from an ordinary asynchronous AC motor to a servo motor drive mode, eliminating the need for deceleration and braking structures, making the press structure simpler, easier to maintain, and even cheaper. Only limited by the power of the servo drive motor, it is currently difficult to manufacture heavy forging machine tools. The forging hydraulic press has developed from a hydraulic press to the most commonly used hydraulic press. The hydraulic press has also developed from a traditional servo valve control method (accumulator required) to a servo pump control method (no accumulator required), which greatly improves the energy efficiency and stroke rate of the hydraulic press , In the performance comparison between hydraulic press and mechanical press, the comprehensive competitiveness is improved. In addition, the forging billet-making machine tool roll forging machine and the cross wedge rolling mill also adopt the mechanical servo direct drive method, which has a simple structure, easy manufacture, reduced energy consumption, and superior performance. In addition, Ficep, Newwich, Lingding and other companies also produce servo-driven equipment.
Among the two major types of forming machine tools in stamping production, the servo drive of the mechanical press will gradually replace the traditional asynchronous motor drive, thus completing a revolution in stamping forming machine tools and production processes. In the stamping industry in Europe, the United States, and Japan, mechanical servo presses have been widely used. It is reported that the world’s top stamping machine tool companies such as Schuler and Komatsu no longer recommend traditional mechanical presses for users of large presses; According to the information obtained by the China Forging Association, the world’s top auto companies’ joint ventures in China and their OEM stamping workshops will no longer use traditional mechanical presses in the future. The hydraulic servo direct drive technology of the hydraulic press will also promote the technological change of the hydraulic press, reduce energy consumption, increase the stroke rate, and further improve the comprehensive performance of the hydraulic press, thereby broadening the application range of the hydraulic press. The precision blanking press is also driven by the currently widely used servo valve-controlled hydraulic (with accumulator and large oil tank) to the servo pump-controlled hydraulic (no accumulator, only small oil tank), or even to the mechanical Servo drive mode (currently only used for small presses below 200t) development. The hot stamping press has the same development idea as the fine blanking press, and it is also developing from a valve-controlled hydraulic press to a pump-controlled servo drive mode, or even a mechanical servo drive mode. In addition, Yang Duan, Xu Duan and other companies also produce servo-driven equipment.
Among the two major types of machine tools for sheet metal processing, the CNC punching machine has developed from the rudimentary nibbling machine to the mechanical CNC punching machine, and then to the hydraulic servo CNC punching machine generation by generation, and finally to the most popular mechanical servo CNC punching machine today. It not only saves energy, reduces vibration and noise, but also greatly improves the adaptability of CNC punching machines. It can not only be used for punching, but also can achieve more sheet forming, and at the same time, it can increase the service life of the die and strengthen itself and laser cutting. Compared with the technological advantages. Among various metal forming machine tools, the development of CNC punch presses can be described as rapid. In just a few decades, CNC punch presses have undergone four generations of changes. What will the future CNC punch presses look like? It is worth looking forward to. Another key machine tool for sheet metal processing, the CNC bending machine is the same as the CNC punching machine. In just a few decades, it has experienced CNC hydraulic and CNC hydraulic servo bending machines to the commonly used CNC servo hybrid bending machines today. The machine tool is not only environmentally friendly and energy-saving, but also has good manufacturability and is easy to realize automatic and intelligent production. In addition, it is worthy of everyone’s attention that in small CNC bending machines, the use of CNC mechanical servo drives has become a trend. Compared with previous generations of bending machines, it has the advantages of servo hybrid bending machines. The drive structure is simpler, easy to maintain and maintain, and the manufacturing cost is lower.
Two major types of forming machines for metal pipes and wires, pipe bending machines and wire bending machines have also developed from the early ordinary hydraulic main drive and hydraulic servo feed to a purely mechanical servo main drive and a fully electric mechanical servo feed. Make the machine tool structure simpler, easier to realize automation, easy to maintain, safe and reliable operation, and can realize energy saving and green production.
In short, the main drive of the metal forming machine tool is servo-driven, so that the equipment performance is better and the craftsmanship is better; it is more suitable for automatic production, information management, and data diagnosis; it is more energy-saving and environmentally friendly, humane green, and sustainable development. Among them, mechanical servo direct drive is currently the most advanced drive method. Restricted by the servo control system, servo motor manufacturing technology and cost, it is still very difficult for large metal forming machine tools to adopt mechanical servo direct drive. Between the motor and the slider, a mechanical transmission structure is still needed, but they are all mechanical Rigid connection, high energy transfer efficiency, high motion control precision, simple structure, easy to manufacture and maintain.
Take the mechanical servo press in the metal forming machine tool. 20 years ago, the major Japanese and German forging machine tool companies had begun to develop mechanical servo main drive presses. Ten years ago, the Japanese and German automobile industries began to use mechanical servo presses. . So far, major automobile companies in Japan and Germany have basically adopted mechanical servo press lines or multi-station presses for the production of large-scale automobile body stamping parts. Tier 1 suppliers have also begun to use mechanical servo presses for production. The research and development of mechanical servo press in China began 15 years ago, but so far, it has not been well applied. The reason is that the servo control system and servo motors used in domestic mechanical servo presses are mainly imported, which makes domestic mechanical servo presses The price is high, and it is difficult for various stamping companies to bear it. This also restricts the promotion and application of mechanical servo presses in China, and affects the long-term development of China’s stamping enterprises.
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